Fletcher Collection


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  • Ox-Bow Banking Grounds
    Image       Ox-Bow banking grounds. The "ox-bow" was named for a twisting stretch of the Thunder Bay River that resembled a yoke used to harness oxen. The banking grounds (on the banks of the river) were where logs were hauled prior to being put in the river to be sent to the ...
    Image     Ox-Bow banking grounds. The "ox-bow" was named for a twisting stretch of the Thunder Bay River that resembled a yoke used to harness oxen. The banking grounds (on the banks ...
  • Churchill Lumber Mill at Mouth of Thunder Bay River
    Image       Churchill Lumber Mill at the mouth of the Thunder Bay River. The cone shaped structure is a "burner" used to burn sawdust, bark, and trimmings. Floating "booms," made of logs chained together, separated the property of one company from that of another. From the booms, logs were floated to the ...
    Image     Churchill Lumber Mill at the mouth of the Thunder Bay River. The cone shaped structure is a "burner" used to burn sawdust, bark, and trimmings. Floating "booms," made of logs ...
  • Loggers Peeling Bark
    Image       Loggers peeling bark from trees. This was usually done with cedar and hemlock trees. Tannin was extracted from hemlock bark to be used in the leather tanning process.
    Image     Loggers peeling bark from trees. This was usually done with cedar and hemlock trees. Tannin was extracted from hemlock bark to be used in the leather tanning process.
  • Lumber Stacks Along Thunder Bay River
    Image       Stacks of lumber along the Thunder Bay River waiting to be loaded on to ships. Prentiss Lumber Mill is at the center. Note the masts of schooners in the river.
    Image     Stacks of lumber along the Thunder Bay River waiting to be loaded on to ships. Prentiss Lumber Mill is at the center. Note the masts of schooners in the river.
  • Loggers Felling a Tree
    Image       Felling a tree using a cross-cut saw. The saw replaced the axe, which led to increased efficiency.
    Image     Felling a tree using a cross-cut saw. The saw replaced the axe, which led to increased efficiency.
  • Sleigh of Logs
    Image       A load of logs being taken to the banking grounds. The development of rutters and water sprinklers to maintain the sled tracks enabled the woodsmen to haul heavier loads. A rutter was a devise that attached to a log sled runner and cleared the ruts in the road for the ...
    Image     A load of logs being taken to the banking grounds. The development of rutters and water sprinklers to maintain the sled tracks enabled the woodsmen to haul heavier loads. A ...
  • Loggers, Oxen, and Logs
    Image       A team of oxen being used in a logging operation. Oxen were more commonly used is Southern Michigan and were eventually replaces with horses. Oxen were often preferred to horses, because they could be led, whereas the driver of a team of horses could not see the road over the ...
    Image     A team of oxen being used in a logging operation. Oxen were more commonly used is Southern Michigan and were eventually replaces with horses. Oxen were often preferred to horses, ...
  • Logging Camp Cook Shack
    Image       A cook shack at the sire of a logging operation. There was usually a head cook, assistants, and a "chore boy." Three meals a day were served with lunch being taken to the men in the woods.
    Image     A cook shack at the sire of a logging operation. There was usually a head cook, assistants, and a "chore boy." Three meals a day were served with lunch being ...
  • Horse Teams Hauling Logs
    Image       Teams of horses hauling logs.
    Image     Teams of horses hauling logs.
  • Banking Grounds
    Image       The banking grounds (on the banks of the river) were where logs were hauled prior to being put in the river to be sent to the sawmill.
    Image     The banking grounds (on the banks of the river) were where logs were hauled prior to being put in the river to be sent to the sawmill.
  • Sleighs of Logs
    Image       Two sled loads of logs.
    Image     Two sled loads of logs.
  • Lumbering in Alpena
    Image       A group of lumberjacks, holding cant hooks, are either pulling logs from the river or putting them into the river for transporting them. (Possibly Thunder Bay River in Alpena County.)
    Image     A group of lumberjacks, holding cant hooks, are either pulling logs from the river or putting them into the river for transporting them. (Possibly Thunder Bay River in Alpena County.)
  • Churchill Lumber Company
    Image       In the background is Churchill Lumber Company saw mill. There are two wood burners burning the waste. (also known as a teepee burner or a wigwam burner). Logs are floating in the river, waiting to be sorted in the sorting gaps. There is a wooden vessel docked to the right ...
    Image     In the background is Churchill Lumber Company saw mill. There are two wood burners burning the waste. (also known as a teepee burner or a wigwam burner). Logs are floating ...
  • Logging in Alpena, Michigan
    Image       A group of lumberjacks are removing the bark from a tree at a lumber camp in Alpena County.
    Image     A group of lumberjacks are removing the bark from a tree at a lumber camp in Alpena County.
  • Prentiss Lumber Co
    Image       There are stacks of lumber at Prentiss Lumber Company. Boards are stacked getting ready for shipping. There is a wood waste burner (also known as a teepee burner or a wigwam burner).
    Image     There are stacks of lumber at Prentiss Lumber Company. Boards are stacked getting ready for shipping. There is a wood waste burner (also known as a teepee burner or a ...
  • Lumbering in Alpena
    Image       Two lumberjacks are felling a large tree using what is known as a crosscut saw. A man, who could be a supervisor, is overseeing the felling of the tree. In the background there is a lumberjack using an axe on a tree as if he is starting to chop the ...
    Image     Two lumberjacks are felling a large tree using what is known as a crosscut saw. A man, who could be a supervisor, is overseeing the felling of the tree. In ...
  • Horse Team Waiting To Haul Logs
    Image       Two white horses are hitched up to a skid loaded with seven large logs. There is a lumberjack sitting on top of the pile of logs. Another lumberjack is in the background, on the right side, holding a cant hook.
    Image     Two white horses are hitched up to a skid loaded with seven large logs. There is a lumberjack sitting on top of the pile of logs. Another lumberjack is in ...
  • Working oxen and lumberjacks
    Image       Two oxen have pulled a log to add to the pile of logs. (Oxen are generally cattle that have been trained to work by yoke and collar. Most oxen are castrated males. The horns keep the yoke from coming off their heads while they are backing up.) Lumberjacks are posing ...
    Image     Two oxen have pulled a log to add to the pile of logs. (Oxen are generally cattle that have been trained to work by yoke and collar. Most oxen are ...
  • Cookhouse in Alpena Lumbering Camp
    Image       Here is a Cookhouse at a lumber camp in Alpena, Michigan. The people would be the Cook and the helpers (which are called bullcooks, flunkeys or cookees) that handled the food.
    Image     Here is a Cookhouse at a lumber camp in Alpena, Michigan. The people would be the Cook and the helpers (which are called bullcooks, flunkeys or cookees) that handled the ...
  • Three vessels moored in Alpena
    Image       Three vessels are moored in Thunder Bay River in Alpena, "City of Cleaveland", "City of Mackinac", and what I believe is the "Flora". In the background is a wood burner (also known as a Wigwam or Teepee Burner).
    Image     Three vessels are moored in Thunder Bay River in Alpena, "City of Cleaveland", "City of Mackinac", and what I believe is the "Flora". In the background is a wood burner ...
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Fletcher Collection